Research: Sawmill Database

Alpha-Numeric Key: JE-40
Corporate Name: Long Manufacturing Company
Local Name:
Owner Name: Long Manufacturing Company. Frank L. Carroll, William A. Fletcher, John W. Keith, and Joseph A. Carroll (all brothers-in-law married to James Long's sisters). Davis Long and James Long. James Long & Frank L. Carroll. John R. Ross & James R Alexander
Location: Beaumont on Brake's Bayou
County: Jefferson
Years in Operation: 42 years
Start Year: 1857
End Year: 1898
Decades: 1850-1859,1860-1869,1870-1879,1880-1889,1890-1899
Period of Operation: 1857 to 1859. 1860 to 1867 (inoperative).1867 rebuilt to 1898.
Town: Beaumont
Company Town: 1
Peak Town Size: Unknown
Mill Pond:
Type of Mill: 1857 to 1859: Lumber and cornmeal. 1867-lumber; 1873-shingles: 140,000 daily in 1877
Sawmill Pine Sawmill Hardwood Sawmill Cypress Sawmill
Planer Planer Only Shingle Paper
Plywood Cotton Grist Unknown
Power Source: 1870: one saw 20-horsepower steam engine. 1875: three 75-horsepower steam engines
Horse Mule Oxen Water
Water Overshot Water Turbine Diesel Unknown
Pit Steam Steam Circular Steam Band
Gas Electricity Other
Maximum Capacity: 
Capacity Comments: 1,000 feet daily in 1859 and then doubled. In 1877, 140,000 shingles daily
Rough Lumber Planed Lumber Crossties Timbers
Lathe Ceiling Unknown Beading
Flooring Paper Plywood Particle Board
Treated Other
Equipment: Originally a combination grist and circular sawmill. 1870, a single circular. 1880 Census: 3 circular saws, one band saw. 1890: band saw
Company Tram:
Associated Railroads: Yellow Bluff Tram Company. Texas & New Orleans
Historicial Development: James R. Alexander and John R. Ross built a circular sawmill and grist mill on Brake's Bayou in 1857. Financial difficulties were followed by a fire that burned down the mill in February 1859 and about $15,000 worth of cypress logs. James Long and Frank Carroll bought the site and burned-out equipment in 1860. The Civil War prevented operations at the mill site until 1867 when the Long and Long sawmill was built as a result of Davis Long, James' father, buying an half interest in the mill. The 1870 Census recorded that the single circular sawmill cut 1,200,000 board feet at a value of $14,000 in twelve months from raw materials valued at $6,000. The mill employed nine workers and paid them a total wage of $3,000. In November and December 1877, Long Manufacturing shipped more than 2,500,000 shingles. James Long died in 1873. His widow gave her brothers-in-law permission to run the company. The family formed the Long Manufacturing Company, which produced shingles and became the largest employer, sixty workers, in Beaumont. In 1880, capitalized at $50,000, the mill produced 24,000,000 shingles valued at $50,000. Employing a maximum of sixty workers and an average of thirty-five, twelve of those boys under the age of sixteen, the mill paid skilled workers $3 and unskilled $1.50 daily for an eleven hour shift. The annual wage for ten months of operation totaled $18,000. Long Manufacturing and Beaumont Lumber organized the Yellow Bluff Tram Company to do its logging. The company had a telephone line by 1881, linking it with the Beaumont Lumber Company, a Fletcher-Carroll-Keith operation. Long Manufacturing was a very successful business, helping to push the fabulous ventures of the Fletcher, Keith, and Carroll families. The creation of the Yellow Bluff Tram Company, a takeover of the Wiess Bluff Tram Company, introduced logging steam engines in Jasper County in 1877. Economic recession, excess production, and a scarcity of cypress led to bankruptcy in 1898 in order to satisfy its creditors.
Research Date: MCJ 03-12-96
Prepared By: M Johnson